Frequent fires in buses, and the flame retardant standards of bus interiors need to be improved
At 12:22 on May 1, 2017, a serial electric bus fire broke out at the parking lot of Beijing's Xiedao Resort. About 80 buses caught fire. Within a few minutes, the bus exploded and burned into an empty rack, resulting in direct losses of nearly 100 million yuan. At 9 am on May 9, 2017, in a tunnel in Weihai City, Shandong Province, there was also a burning accident of a school bus attached to an international school. As the fire spread too fast, 11 children were killed.
According to statistics, as of 2016, the total number of vehicles transported by our country road has reached 831,200. As the main body of urban public transportation, public safety vehicles have received attention from all levels of society. However, as shown in the previous news, bus fires still occur from time to time. Once the fire source rises, it will cause immeasurable losses to life and property in just one or two minutes.
At the 2017 Tianjin International Passenger Transport Equipment and Technology Exhibition, a company shared several cases and a set of data with everyone: on March 21, 2015, the Liaoning Provincial Public Security Fire Brigade conducted an escape experiment, a 43-seater A fire broke out on the three-door bus. It took 42 seconds for passengers to escape in an orderly manner without any obstacles on the door. The second experiment was to confine the three doors, and the passengers needed to break the glass window with a safety hammer. To escape, fifteen people will take 55 seconds, which is very long. A company in Hangzhou did such a test. On the front floor of the bus and on the seat, 10 liters of gasoline was poured. After it was ignited, a fire broke out after 10 seconds, and the entire middle of the car was burned after 20 seconds. Billowing, at this time it is very difficult for passengers to escape.
According to a set of simulation experiments conducted by the German Federal Materials Research, suppose a newspaper is lit at the rear of the bus and let it burn naturally. If our interior materials are not flame retardant, after 50 seconds, the entire interior of the bus will burn , The space was also full of black smoke, and deflagration occurred after 135 seconds; then a series of experiments were performed on the interior of the passenger car according to the standard of rail transit, and a newspaper was still lit at the rear to let it burn naturally, and the deflagration time was 135 seconds was extended to 400 seconds, which provided passengers with enough time to escape. The fire and flame retardant properties of vehicles and interiors play a vital role in transportation safety, and the domestic flame retardant standards for passenger car interiors are still very low. Take the "Combustion Characteristics of Automotive Interior Materials" (GB8410 -2006), the requirement for the burning speed of interior materials is not higher than 100 mm per minute. At present, most domestic passenger cars have reached this standard. However, fires are still frequent and life is difficult to save in time. Urgent implementation.
In the lessons of blood and tears, we all realized the importance of flame retardant materials in the design and manufacture of passenger cars, but more importantly-raising the flame retardant standards of existing passenger car interiors and materials. At present, the "Technical Conditions for Operating Passenger Cars" just released by the Ministry of Communications clearly requires that the interior materials of passenger cars must meet the test and technical requirements of JT / T 1095-2016 "Flame Retardant Properties of Interior Materials for Operating Buses". For example, the seat plastic material is required to be no higher than 50 mm per minute in horizontal combustion, and no higher than 100 mm per minute in vertical combustion, and the oxygen index is not to be less than 24%. The regulations issued by the Ministry of Transport have released a positive signal that the transportation industry is beginning to increase the flame retardant requirements of passenger car interiors.
The national standard “Combustion performance of interior materials for passenger cars” is also being developed. It also applies to horizontal combustion, vertical combustion, oxygen index, smoke density, etc. of floor covering materials, leather materials, textile materials, and plastic materials for seats in passenger cars. Various indicators are required. According to this standard, in the bus combustion experiment conducted by Dujiangyan last year, the bus bombing time can be postponed to more than 3 minutes. All sectors of the society strongly call for this standard to be issued as soon as possible. Only by raising the existing flame retardant standards and vigorously promoting the use of flame retardant materials in passenger cars can we provide sufficient time for our safe escape in the event of a fire and protect our lives and property convoy.